Overview of the Nation Atjeh : Atjeh Agreement with United Kingdom
At 1819, when the United Kingdom and the Sultanate of Aceh signed a defense cooperation. For the UK, the agreement is very important to make the steps they take the Malacca, the most strategic trading on the planet. In addition, they also want to take stakeholders Malaysia, Singapore (Tumasik), and strategic places in the north-east of the Malacca.
Instead, for the Kingdom of Aceh, in cooperation with the British because of the political state that is a super-power in the era of knowledge. This Agreement is also a victory over Dutch diplomacy Aceh. For, since the early 18-century, the Kingdom of Aceh, the UK, the Netherlands and another in the race drive in his Ocean Malacca. The role of lay-UK cooperation in Aceh is a famous builder of Singapore, Sir Stamford Raffles
English is also aware when the kingdom of Aceh can not be considered lightly. Portuguese have the bitter experience of dealing with the people of Aceh. In the efforts to Malacca Peninsula in mid-century to 15, dealing with the Portuguese forces against the war in Aceh with the fierce and continuing under the leadership of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah (1524-1530), Sultan Saladin (1528-1537), Sultan Al Alaiadin Riayat Syah Qahhar (1537-1571), Sultan Ala ad-Din Mansyur Syah (1579-1586), Sultan Ala'adin Ri'ayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammil (1587-1604), to reach the golden time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607 -- 1636).
Portuguese finally own up to regularly back to the ground after the Sunda and Demak conquer Malacca, without Aceh. Aceh alone would hit back with help from Demak Pati Unus in Portuguese expedition pursue Peninsula in Malacca, in 1513 failed to mention.
Kingdom of the Netherlands was initially very reluctant to respect the sovereignty and Aceh. When successfully conquered in Java in 1596, the Netherlands did not dare to attack Aceh. Even trade relations between the Aceh-Dutch stranded both. This relationship in a Friendship and Trade Agreement on 30 March 1857.
The agreement strengthens the commitment of the Netherlands recognizes the sovereignty of Aceh. Netherlands even tied treaties London (1821) that require it to respect the sovereignty of Aceh.
But the appetite Sumatra presumably continue to seethe. At first the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Siak Deli on 1858, before the cock Malacca and Aceh. To enforce its plan, the quiet conspiracy with the Netherlands to the UK in the treaties Sumatra (1971). The contents, provide flexibility in the UK the Netherlands to expand his power in Sumatra. And as a return, the Netherlands must submit one of the region to its colony in Africa called the Gold Coast to Britain.
English is a clear attitude betrayal. The war between Aceh and the Netherlands since 1873 was broken. 3000 Dutch troops mobilize the army under the command of Major General Kohler exert a warship Citadel van Antwerpen. The number of army troops is the largest ever collected in the Netherlands Southeast Asia.
Between March 26 to 23 April 1873-combatant combatant Aceh under Sultan Mahmud Syah maintain the beach from the Netherlands amphibious operations. General Kohler itself successfully arrested and then executed. This is the most shameful defeat Dutch in Southeast Asia. Since then, the Netherlands more troops to strengthen its in Aceh.
Kohler died after a year, exactly 26 January 1874, Sultan Mahmud follow. Kingdom of Aceh was shaky start because the crown son, Muhammad Daud Syah, still small. But as the constitution demands, perforce, must still constitute the kingdom of David as Syah sultan. There are some who say, when constituted, David, age is still below 10 years. But there are also mentions that he is 12 years old.
During led by Daud Syah Sultan, the kingdom of Aceh is completely disorganized. Prof. Alfian call as the descendants of the Iskandar Muda weak. In such conditions, Tjhik Di Tiro Teungku Muhammad Saman scholars trust troops took over the kingdom.
Aceh war 1873-1904
Sultan Iskandar Muda triumph. Now you can continue the development of the history of Aceh through the Aceh war, full of heroic spirit in order to face the Netherlands.
To clarify the perspective on your geographic location and the war in Aceh war Tapanuli, note the image maps of North Sumatra below.
Until the 19th century Aceh was the region independent and respected by the two imperialist in Indonesia (Islands archipelago) and its surrounding areas, namely the UK and the Netherlands. Based on the treaties / agreements Aceh then London in 1824 as a buffer zone (Bufferstate) of power between the British in Malacca Bengkulu submitted to the UK to the Netherlands. Did you know British buffer state with France in Southeast Asia? Yes correct, that country is never Muangthai the occupation.
The situation can not survive long because of the interest of the Netherlands intends occupying Aceh relief is resistance so that the people of Aceh.
Causes The war in Aceh:
1.Belanda feel entitled to the East of Sumatra from the Sultan of Siak Sultan as a reward to assist in the civil war through treaties Siak year 1858, while the Aceh region that holds the region successfully seized
2.Since Terusan Suez year 1869 opened the Aceh becomes very important as a shipping line from Europe to Asia.
3.Discharge its treaties Sumatra ( Traktat Sumatra )year 1871 which states that the UK will not deter efforts to extend the Netherlands to its power to Aceh in the framework of the Pax Netherlandica
How to react to the Aceh Sumatra treaties that threaten its sovereignty? Aceh tried to seek help by sending an envoy to Turkey. It also woven relationship to the United States representative countries and Italy in Singapore. Action Aceh this worrisome Netherlands ago demanding that recognizes the sovereignty of Aceh Netherlands. Aceh deny the charges so that the Dutch do it.
Aceh is the nature of resistance that is two different kinds of political and religious. Political opposition aims to maintain the sovereignty of Aceh. Political opposition led by the noble title of Teuku.
Who figures is noble? They, among others, Teuku Umar and his wife called Cut Nyak Dien, Panglima Polim, Sultan Dawodsyah, Teuku Imam Lueng Bata. Also a religious war that is coming Netherlands reject the Christian religion will spread in Aceh. Religious leaders are the scholars who have title Teungku example Teungku Cik Di Tiro. The scholars do not easily give up and compromise on the Netherlands
• In April 1873 Dutch troops led by Major General JHR Kohler Aceh attack but failed to even Jendral Kohler died in combat want the Great Baiturrahman mosque.
• In December 1873 Dutch troops led by Lieutenant-General Van Swieten can occupy the palace and proclaim that the kingdom of Aceh have been subdued. Name of Banda Aceh and the city replaced the king. What Aceh really is subject to the Netherlands? Is not the case. Aceh is the king Sultan Mahmudsyah died because his ill. Her son Muhammad, who called the government in the run Dawodsyah Pagar Aye. The Aceh people still continue the resistance led by Panglima Polim
• Phase next year since 1884 only the Netherlands to maintain power in areas under its course. There was civil government. This system is called the concentration system
• In the year 1893 Teuku Umar strategy to surrender to the Netherlands to obtain trust and lead the armed forces 250 people were given the title of full ago Teuku Umar Johan Pahlawan. Teuku Umar whether action is a betrayal of the nation and his country? In fact the only strategy to have enough weapons to the Netherlands next.
Netherlands quite difficult to face resistance of the people of Aceh. How the Netherlands next action? In order to know the social system and secret tenacity of the people of Aceh is then sent Dr. Snouck Hurgronye an expert in Islamic religious itu.From to investigate the results of its investigations in a book with the title? Atjehers De? according Hurgronye there are two ways to subdue the Acehnese do approach to the noble and the son-son into their civil service in the Dutch government. The scholars have to be faced with the strength to surrender weapons.
Since 1896. Netherlands has completed the war by sending troops marsose (military police) with its commander Lieutenant Colonel Van Geuts. In hostilities in Meulaboh on 11 February 1899 Teuku Umar killed. Resistance still continue until finally in January 1903 Sultan Dawudsyah surrender, September 1903 Panglima Polim also up. Why Sultan Aceh surrendered to the Netherlands? In fact it is because the Netherlands shiftiness Sultan ordered to surrender after capturing his wife and children. Netherlands still continue with the cleaning of the area that is the last turbulent Gayo Alas (Aceh Tenggara) led by Letkon Van Daalen 1904, the people who killed people in 2922.
Tjut Nyak Dien resistance still continue for 5 years. He led the troops go out with a determination jungle willingly sacrificing life for the independence of the nation and dispel the Netherlands. Tjut Nyak Dien resistance ended year 1905. He was arrested and removed to Cianjur ago Sumedang died until 6 November 1908, while Tjut Meutia autumn 1910.
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